MidAtlantic Biosolids Association

June 2024 - Executive Director’s Report to MABA Members

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“The meeting of two personalities is like the contact of two chemical substances:
if there is any reaction, both are transformed.”

The first five months of 2024 held significant developments in the water, wastewater, and biosolids sectors with updates issued by the US EPA regarding the Final PFAS National Primary Drinking Water Regulation and the Designation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) as CERCLA Hazardous Substances.  MABA is working to stay abreast of this news so that we can share it with the members as soon as it becomes available, and we will continue that charge in the months ahead.  While some of the recent news is complex and challenging, I believe that MABA members and the biosolids sector will continue to evolve and grow to meet these challenges.  With the US EPA PFAS in biosolids risk assessment due later this year, it is imperative that we look ahead with plans to strengthen and come together as a whole community.

Spring is the time of year for planting and sowing seeds of many of the crops for the near summer and early fall months, and likewise, the MABA leadership team is hard at work sowing the seeds for the webinar and conference season.  On the webinar front, MABA worked with the PA NewsMedia Association to share the stories and work of three WRRFs in Pennsylvania. The April 24 webinar featured the Hermitage Municipal Authority, Mechanicsburg Wastewater Treatment, and Lancaster Area Sewer Authority.  Another MABA webinar took place on May 7 to share about facilities that work with incineration, as well as recent research findings about PFAS destruction through incineration.  

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On the conference front, MABA hosted an exhibit booth at the NJWEA 109th Annual John J. Lagrosa Conference in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in May.  And I shared a presentation at the NYWEA Spring Meeting in Buffalo, New York, and the PWEA Annual Technical Conference - PennTec in State College, Pennsylvania, earlier this month, titled “PFAS: The Latest on an Ever-Evolving Regulatory Landscape—National Update”. 

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Carl Jung, the founder of analytical psychology once said, “The meeting of two personalities is like the contact of two chemical substances: if there is any reaction, both are transformed.”

It is that chemistry, and those transformations, that MABA is hoping to achieve at the upcoming 2024 Summer Symposium in Richmond, Virginia on July 9 through 11.  The culmination of the work of MABA’s committees and leadership will take shape as we come together to grow our knowledge with two days of outstanding programming, honor the biosolids champions at the 2nd Annual MABA Recognition Awards reception, develop our relationships through three days of networking events, and offer a site tour at nearby Henrico County.  With around 100 attendees anticipated for this year’s symposium, the power of the transformations in store is nothing short of remarkable.  

The MABA leadership invites you to join us in the sowing season: Reach out to us if you’d like to set-up a specific day and time to meet at the symposium, or to schedule a site visit at your facility. Be a part of the early harvest of biosolids networking transformations at the upcoming Summer Symposium, and help to develop and build the bonds that will surely rival the “forever” of the foe that we are poised to face, together.

If you are interested in learning more about MABA, or setting up some time to talk or get together, please reach out to me at [email protected] or 845-901-7905. 


March 2024 - MABA Reg/Leg Update



Senate EPW


The U.S. Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works will hold a hearing on March 20 at 10 a.m. ET titled "Examining PFAS as Hazardous Substances".  View information about the hearing, including the panelists HERE, and view the hearing by visiting the Senate EPW YouTube live stream by clicking HERE.


MABA, along with over 50 other organizations submitted a letter to the Senate EPW to encourage their consideration of an exemption from CERCLA liability for passive PFAS receivers.  You can view and download that letter by clicking HERE.




On January 31, 2024, the USEPA released an updated version of Method 1633, which outlines how to test for PFAS in various sources such as surface water, groundwater, wastewater, biosolids, sediment, soils, and fish tissue.  Additionally, an updated version of Method 1621, covering adsorbable fluorine, was also posted.  Method 1633 has been updated after the successful completion of a multi-lab validation under the leadership of the Department of Defense. These updates signify that the methods are now finalized and the USEPA encourages their use, although revisions may still occur during the rulemaking process. 


More information is available by clicking HERE.




In November 2023, Pennsylvania Representative Jim Rigby introduced Pennsylvania’s House Resolution 257 – concerning proposed General Permits 07, 08 and 09 regarding the management of biosolids. This resolution urges the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, as a result of the findings of the Legislative Budget and Finance Committee's report, not to implement the proposed revisions. 


Representative Rigby wrote in his house co-sponsorship memoranda, "This resolution directly follows the direction in the Legislative Budget and Finance Committee’s recently released study commissioned by HR149.  As LBFC summarized: 'Permit changes may create unintended consequences for biosolids management, which could result in higher fees for ratepayers. I am concerned about these higher fees impacting sewage rate payers in Pennsylvania.


While the LBFC report provided estimates for the direct costs related to permit changes, they also identified several indirect costs that could follow compliance with DEP’s proposed permit revisions. Although the cost of these unintended consequences will be site-specific these costs undoubtedly will be passed along to local ratepayers in the form of increased fees.'  Ultimately these additional fees will have a disproportionate impact on families that are least able to pay increased sewage rates."


MABA encourages you to read this memoranda and house resolution, and consider reaching out to your legislators to ask them to support this resolution.  You can find your legislators by clicking HERE.



In December 2023, the Maryland Department of the Environment released the Maryland PFAS Action Plan.  The update indicated that MDE has issued 14 NPDES permits with specific PFAS monitoring requirements for influent, effluent and biosolids. The Department’s report also stated that the biosolids testing was completed in the third quarter 2023 and a decision would be made by the end of 2023. However, to date, it is our understanding that MDE has not reached a decision on issuing any permits.


The MABA Reg/Leg Committee sent a letter to the Maryland Department of the Environment in February 2024 to request that MDE provide MABA with testing data findings and what approach MDE will be taking moving forward with respect to ending the moratorium and moving forward on the issuance of permits that we understand MDE has processed but not issued. 


You can view and download this letter by clicking HERE.




HB 870 from Del. David Bulova, D-Fairfax, would require the Virginia State Water Control Board to adopt regulations to address situations when wastewater treatment plant  storage capacity is exceeded due to adverse weather conditions, resulting in the flow of biosolids — or sewage sludge — into state waters.


Bulova told the House last month these sewage overflow events are expected to occur more frequently because of the increased frequency, intensity and duration of storm events being driven by climate change. 


Representing the Virginia Biosolids Council, Kyle Shreve said biosolids, a byproduct of sewage treated at wastewater plants, are often used as fertilizer on farm fields. However, he said biosolids can’t be used during periods of heavy rainfall and can begin to build up in storage facilities and potentially create water quality issues if they get in state waters.


The issue started gaining attention in 2018, when Virginia had its highest level of precipitation since 1895, according to data from the National Centers for Environmental Information. A series of intense storms hit the commonwealth the following year, flooding neighborhoods and overwhelming infrastructure. 


During that time period, Shreve said there were multiple storage challenges that the wastewater facilities were unable to deal with under current regulations, which offer different temporary solutions depending on the facility. 


Shreve said the bill asks the Department of Environmental Quality to update the existing biosolids regulations so plans can be preapproved in the event severe weather prevents land application of biosolids in the future. 


The legislation passed the House and Senate unanimously.


New Jersey


On January 17, 2023, the Commissioner signed Administrative Order 2023-01  to encourage the collection of data that will aid in efforts to identify, reduce and eliminate sources of PFAS in wastewater and its residuals.


The Division of Water Quality is undertaking an effort to identify, reduce and eliminate sources of PFAS in industrial wastewater.  As part of the effort to identify PFAS at the source, the Division began their strategy by focusing on the direct industrial dischargers to surface water (Category B permits) and industrial dischargers to a POTW (Category L permits), along with working with Delegated Local Agencies to begin identifying, reducing and eliminating sources of PFAS discharged into their systems. The Division created and issued a survey to permittees to gather information regarding potential sources of PFAS and operational processes. The Division also issued a Request for Information to gather wastewater sampling data from the surveyed permittees. This data will aid the Division in understanding the scope of PFAS in wastewater discharges.  


For additional information regarding PFAS monitoring in the NJDEP surface water division click HERE.


The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (Department) has officially adopted amendments to the Ground Water Quality Standards, N.J.A.C. 7:9C (GWQS) and the New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Regulations, N.J.A.C. 7:14A (NJPDES) to address perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in discharges to ground water.  


In response to the adopted amendments, the Division of Water Quality began modifying NJPDES DGW permits to include monitoring for PFOA, PFNA and PFOS.

The Ground Water Application Checklist  and the Technical Manual for NJPDES DGW Permits  have been updated to specify the requirement for PFAS monitoring as part of the Pollutant Analysis Summary in DGW permit applications.


Monitoring results for the NJPDES DGW permitted facilities that have been modified to include a requirement to monitor for PFOA, PFNA and PFOS can be viewed utilizing DEP DataMiner. To obtain this data, Search by Category, NJPDES Permitting Program.


For additional information regarding PFAS monitoring in the NJDEP ground water division click HERE.


New York


The New York State Department of Conservation (NYSDEC) adopted the Materials Management Program Policy 7 - Biosolids Recycling in New York State - Interim Strategy for the Control of PFAS Compounds (DMM7), as well as the Parts 360-366, 369, 371, and 377.  These were adopted on September 20, 2023,  and became effective October 20, 2023. 


The NYS DEC is in the process of sampling and analyses in coordination with SUNY at this time.  


Additionally, you can review the information from the October 16, 2023 webinar about the NYSDEC DMM-7 Policy.


You can watch the webinar on MABA's YouTube & subscribe today, and download the presentation and Q&A below:


Presentation: NYSDEC MABA Webinar Presentation - DMM Program Policy 7

Sally Rowland, PhD, PE, Environmental Engineer 3, NYS Department of Environmental Conservation


Additionally, you can download the questions/answers shared during the webinar by clicking HERE.  And you can review the list of industries (and SIC codes) as potential primary sources of PFOA/PFOS, by clicking HERE, and referencing Appendix A.




In Delaware, various wastewater streams (domestic, industrial and municipal) are treated and discharged into surface water bodies (NPDES discharges) as well as onto the ground surface, where it infiltrates the soil and ultimately enters groundwater (on-site wastewater discharges). Biosolids are land applied at numerous sites across the state.


DNREC’s Water Resource Protection team has started a statewide study of PFAS in wastewater.


Biosolids were selected to be examined first under a Biosolids Project Design and Sampling Plan. In December 2022, samples of biosolids (before being land applied), soils (from a selected land application site) and groundwater (from the monitoring wells installed at the selected site) were collected.


Project Design and Sampling Plan for wastewater influent, effluent and discharge receival media (soil and groundwater) has been completed. Field sampling is expected to start in the summer of 2023. 


In addition, samples of septages from individual septic systems will also be collected and evaluated, under a Project Design and Sampling Plan for septages.


For additional information regarding the DNREC PFAS in Wastewater, click HERE.


Biosolids NewsClips - June 18, 2024

NewsClips is filled with articles from around the region and the world. This edition includes some positive articles, including an article from Marion County, West Virginia, where the city of Fairmont Sanitary Sewer Board and the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, are allowing farmers to apply biosolids as fertilizer to improve soil nutrients and help plant growth.  Additionally, there are articles about new research, including an article from Japan where researchers at Hokkaido University have developed a method to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge ash, which remains after the sludge has been burned for electric power generation. 
Unfortunately, there are some less-than-positive articles in this edition, including articles about issues at facilities and within local communities, as well as articles covering lawsuits against the manufacturers, the USEPA, local community governments and wastewater treatment plants.  

The monthly newsclips are brought to you by the MABA Communications Committee, and they are looking for MABA members who are interested in learning more about their work for the biosolids sector.  Please reach out to Mary Firestone if you are interested in checking out an upcoming Communications Committee meeting. 

Stay tuned for more information from MABA.  If you have biosolids news to share, please reach out to Mary Firestone at 845-901-7905 or [email protected]

Biosolids News 
(as of June 7, 2024)

MABA Region

Lawsuit against Steuben County town’s ban on ‘sewage sludge’ dropped
Thurston, NY (1 May 2024) - A lawsuit filed against the town of Thurston in Steuben County was recently discontinued. The litigation challenged the town’s ban on landspreading, which uses sewage sludge as fertilizer. The lawsuit claimed Thurston’s ban on sewage sludge impedes business operations for several waste management companies.

University Area Joint Authority breaks ground for new biosolids project
State College, PA (9 May 2024) - The University Area Joint Authority held a groundbreaking ceremony for its new biosolids project at its State College facility on Friday, April 26. The ceremony kicked off the demolition of the existing original biosolids plant. Formed in 1969, the University Area Joint Authority is a municipal authority which implements sustainable practices in managing wastewater. It provides wastewater treatment, biosolids management and water reuse for the Borough of State College, College Township, Ferguson Township, Harris Township and Patton Township.

Marion County farmers eligible for biosolids program
Fairmont, WV (10 May 2024) - Local farmers in Fairmont can now apply to the Biosolids Land Application program. The program, which is offered by the city of Fairmont Sanitary Sewer Board and the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, allows farmers to apply biosolids as fertilizer to improve soil nutrients and help plant growth. Residents who have flat meadows or pasture lands are encouraged to apply for the program, according to a release.

Group Aims to Stop Sewage Sludge Use in Carbon County
Carbon County, PA (17 May 2024) - Members of the grassroots organization SAVE CARBON COUNTY met Thursday morning in Jim Thrope to unveil their latest efforts to stop the use of sewage sludge. According to the EPA, sewage sludge consists of solids that separate during the treatment of municipal water. The sludge is provided from waste management treatment facilities to farmers for use as fertilizer for free.
Save Carbon County begins campaign against sludge
New bill could bail out US farmers ruined by ‘forever chemical’ pollution
Washington, DC (30 May 2024) - The US may soon bail out farmers whose livelihoods were destroyed by toxic PFAS “forever chemical” contamination. The proposal for a $500m fund aims to head off a crisis for the nation’s growers and is moving through Congress amid increasing evidence that PFAS-contaminated sewage sludge used as a cheap fertilizer alternative poisoned crops and livestock. Separately, around 4,000 farms nationwide have been contaminated by PFAS from neighboring military bases.
Pittston, PA (4 June 2024) - Residents in East Penn Township choose to stay indoors, even on a nice day, because they are concerned about a nearby farm’s use of sewage sludge. Also known as biosolids, the substance is generated at wastewater treatment plants. In this case, it's applied to agricultural land as a fertilizer. “Whether you’re going to look at your flowers or wash your car … you have a wall of stench that you have to battle,” resident John Courgis said. 
New York, NY (5 June 2024) - This study might make you want to push the brakes on filling your plate with heaps of certain veggies. Chemical additives from car tires have ended up in leafy greens, according to a new study. Researchers at the Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science at the University of Vienna and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem published their findings in the journal Frontiers in Environmental Science last month.  
Marquette, MI (2 May 2024) - After receiving a $12.5 million Clean Water State Revolving Fund loan, the Marquette Area Wastewater Treatment Facility hosted a celebratory tour of all the work accomplished in the last year. Local leaders as well as the Department of Environment, Great Lakes and Energy Director Phil Roos were in attendance.The loan, awarded in May 2023, is meant to facilitate low-cost financing to communities for water quality infrastructure projects. 
Perrysburg, OH (5 May 2024) - Every day, 6 million gallons of storm and sanitary water go into — and come out of — the City of Perrysburg’s wastewater treatment plant along the Maumee River. The water is treated biologically and chemically, with some nutrients like phosphorus and ammonia removed. 
Barry County, MO (8 May 2024) - The Missouri Department of Natural Resources will host an in-person, public hearing in Barry County regarding proposed permits by the department for the land-application of industrial meat, poultry and other food-processing waste and human biosolids in Barry and McDonald Counties. The news came via email to the Cassville Democrat from Heather Peters, Chief of the Water Pollution Control Branch of the DNR. 
Portland, ME (9 May 2024) - A mounting capacity crisis for biosolids could soon cripple the state's wastewater treatment facilities if action isn't taken, a new report warns. The study, commissioned by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection, evaluated biosolid management in Maine and made recommendations for how best to handle the waste in the future. 
Manchester, NH (10 May 2024) - Every other Friday, the Outside/In team answers one listener question about the natural world. This week, Jeannie from Burlington, Vt., asked us about wastewater treatment plants. She said she's "curious more about how they work in general," but she also asked how many "are at risk of becoming inundated during extreme flooding events as those become more frequent." 
Columbus, OH (10 May 2024) - The article discusses the concerns raised by neighbors over the spreading of treated sanitary sewer waste, known as biosolids, on the Hickory Bluff Farms in Ohio. The farm is located near residential areas, waterways, and a golf course, which has prompted about 75 people to express worries about traffic, odor, and potential risks to health and the environment. The trucks carrying biosolid sludge were hauled from Columbus’ wastewater treatment plant to the farm for use as fertilizer. 
Bartholomew County, IN (14 May 2024) - With more than 30 concerned residents in attendance, two ordinances have been approved that place regulations or restrictions concerning the use of biosolids as fertilizer for crops. But a local farmer who has applied for a sewage sludge holding facility permit warned the county at least one restriction may lead them on the path to a lawsuit. 
Lewiston, ME (14 May 2024) - The Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association announced Tuesday that it plans to sue federal regulators over the issue of forever chemicals in sludge. MOFGA alleges that the Environmental Protection Agency has failed to regulate the land application of sludge that contained PFAS. Treated sludge has been commonly used for decades as fertilizer in Maine and many other states. But that practice has been linked to high levels of PFAS on more than 50 farms in Maine and hundreds of contaminated drinking water wells.
Fort Worth, TX (14 May 2024) - In February, using findings from Ames’ criminal investigation, a group of five Johnson County residents filed a civil lawsuit against Synagro. They argue the company is liable for the deaths of animals and health issues allegedly caused by the biosolids fertilizer it produced in Fort Worth. Lab testing determined there were high enough concentrations of PFAS in soil, water and animals to kill wildlife and poison humans, according to the lawsuit.
Port Huron, MI (19 May 2024) - There could be a light at the end of the tunnel in finding a permanent fix to the occasional but strong smell plaguing residents downwind of Port Huron’s wastewater treatment plant downtown. During a meeting on Monday, City Council members OK’d a new engineering agreement with the firm Fishbeck, Inc., for an odor control study at the facility — weeks after City Manager James Freed first previewed the need for a new system that’d cost in the millions after another installed a couple of years ago reportedly failed. 
Spring Hill, FL (21 May 2024) - “Let’s just call it what it is,” says Shannon Kennedy in a Pasco County YouTube video. “A biosolid is poop. And it ends up here.” Here, the assistant director of the county’s Solid Waste Department explains, is the biosolids processing facility, also known as FloridaGreen. Owned by the county and operated by Merrell Bros., the facility takes sludge left over from the county’s wastewater treatment plants and recycles it into Class AA fertilizer. Class AA is the highest rating: The material has no pathogens, minimal detectable metals and is safe to use on crops that will be consumed by humans. 
Evansville, WY (25 May 2024) - Wyoming’s sewage treatment plants are showing their age. They’re backed up with flushable wipes, leaking air necessary to help bacteria-eating bugs grow, and need millions of dollars in repairs. Some are tapping loans from Wyoming’s Office of State Lands and Investments. Others have a rainy-day fund in reserves collected from ratepayers to pay for the unexpected. 
Tulsa, OK (28 May 2024) - Cleaning our nation’s wastewaters inevitably leads to waste solids and, for the last half century, landfilling, incineration and land application have been the dominant outlets for these products. Regulatory trends historically have impacted the relative allocation to each outlet however, and before the promulgation of new federal rules for land application in 1993, most solids were managed via landfilling or incineration. Those rules (40 CFR 503) drove a trend that continues today, with most solids now land applied for beneficial use in the U.S. 
Boise, ID (28 May 2024) - Canyon County residents will soon have a new place to drop off trash and recycling materials. On May 17, the Canyon County Board of Commissioners approved an agreement and permit with Timber Creek Recycling to construct and manage a waste transfer station. Pickles Butte, south of Lake Lowell, is currently the county’s only waste disposal site. Timber Creek Recycling will build the new transfer station at 16933 Northside Boulevard in Nampa, where it currently operates a recycling facility. 
Columbia, MO (30 May 2024) - Jason Grostic comes from a long line of farmers. “This is a hundred-year-old operation,” Grostic said. “My grandpa milked cows, my dad milked cows, I milked cows, (then) got into the beef industry. It’s in my blood.” But Grostic may be at the end of the line. Two years ago, he was blindsided when the state of Michigan ordered him to shut down his farm, citing high levels of PFAS — or what are often referred to as toxic “forever chemicals” — in both his beef and soil. 
Columbia, MO (5 June 2024) - America’s farmland is a dumping ground. Industrial food waste and sewage sludge are being spread on millions of acres nationwide. Some call it free fertilizer, rich in nutrients. Others say the practice should be halted due to threats from emerging contaminants like pharmaceuticals, microplastics and the toxic “forever chemicals” known as PFAS.  
Portland, ME (5 June 2024) - Maine's largest water district has filed a lawsuit against DuPont, 3M and other manufacturers of so-called forever chemicals to hold them responsible for the cost of testing and treating polluted wastewater. "Protecting public health, safety and the environment is (our) top priority," said General Manager Seth Garrison. "By taking legal action against manufacturers of PFAS, Portland Water District is holding accountable those responsible for pollution." 
Columbia, MO (6 June 2024) - Burn it, bury it or spread it on land: These are the three most common ways to dispose of sludge, the product left over from wastewater treatment. Land application is the most common, accounting for more than half the wastewater solids generated in the U.S. Yet none of these methods accounts for emerging contaminants, like microplastics, pharmaceuticals and the "forever chemicals" known as PFAS. 
Adelaide, Australia (1 May 2024) - A NEW national study of the prevalence of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Australian livestock on pastures fertilised with sewage biosolids or wastewater is seeking farmer collaborators. University of Adelaide researchers are seeking farmers who have previously applied biosolids as fertiliser to be collaborate in the project. 
Hokkaido, Japan (6 May 2024) - Researchers at Hokkaido University have developed a method to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge ash, which remains after the sludge has been burned for electric power generation. In a paper published in the journal Resources, Conservation and Recycling, the scientists explain that existing methods to recover phosphorus from ash have significant problems, including chemical contamination requiring further purification and complicated expensive chemical processing. 
Birmingham, United Kingdom (8 May 2024) - A project led by Aston University has been granted a portion of £4.5 million by Ofwat to explore the possibility of turning sewage sludge into usable resources such as clean water and energy. The initiative aims to extract energy from waste produced during sewage and water treatment processes. Gases obtained from this process, such as hydrogen and methane, could potentially be utilized to power engines or heat homes. 
Stockholm, Sweden (16 May 2024) - Sewage sludge contains high levels of phosphorus - a finite resource in demand by agriculture. Can sewage sludge be reused in a safe way, and does spreading it on fields increase the amount of microplastics? These questions were discussed at a recent Baltic Breakfast seminar attended by researchers Arno Rosemarin and Geert Cornelis. 
London, Ontario, Canada (17 May 2024) - Over the course of a typical day, about 18 trucks arrive at London's Greenway Wastewater Treatment Plant and unload some 275 tonnes of partially dried and treated human waste. The trucks come to Greenway from London's four other wastewater treatment plants. The cargo they haul into Greenway is sludge, a byproduct of the wastewater treatment process in use at all five of London's plants. 
Tokyo, Japan (17 May 2024) - The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has launched an innovative initiative to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge for use as a raw material for agricultural fertilizer. Previously, phosphorus was disposed of in landfills due to concerns over its suspected role in causing red tides. In a policy shift, however, the metropolitan government has decided to repurpose the chemical element, recognizing it as an underutilized resource with potentially valuable applications in agriculture. 
Capital Region District, British Columbia, Canada (19 May 2024) - The Capital Regional District board has come up with a strategy for dealing with the end product of the region’s sewage treatment process that will make a priority of using the resulting biosolids for fuel. Last week, the board moved forward a three-tiered approach that will form the heart of the CRD’s long-term biosolids management plan to be submitted for provincial approval next month.
Castelgar, British Columbia, Canada (22 May 2024) - The City of Castlegar is addressing resident’s concerns and questions regarding unpleasant odours coming from its wastewater treatment facilities. The city owns and operates a dozen lift stations and roughly 75 kilometres of sewer pipe that collects wastewater and sends it to treatment facilities. 
Using sewage sludge to combat algal bloomsGlasgow, United Kingdom (28 May 2024) - Researchers in Scotland are investigating the potential of converting sewage sludge into a mineral-rich material that could be used to treat water impacted by eutrophication and algal blooms - a phenomenon increasingly affecting lochs and rivers, associated with climate change and industrial fertiliser use. The occurrence of algal blooms can have devastating effects on aquaculture operations.
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